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Infants ought to ideally weigh about 2,500g or extra at start. Delivery weight is a very important indicator of fetal and neonatal well being. If a new child weighs lower than 2,500g—as a result of they’re preterm or their progress within the womb was restricted for some purpose—they’re extra in danger of demise, incapacity and noncommunicable illnesses.

The low start weight toddler’s tiny physique just isn’t as robust appropriately. The child would possibly battle to realize weight and combat an infection. And with so little physique fats, these infants typically have problem staying heat in regular temperatures.

Low start weight is the first trigger of toddler morbidity and mortality in Nigeria.

The components which might be identified to affect a child’s weight at start embrace length of being pregnant, and maternal traits like age, parity (the variety of instances a girl has given start) and sickness, in addition to antagonistic environmental exposures.

One issue that hasn’t been studied a lot in Nigeria is the kind of cooking gas that the child’s mom makes use of or is uncovered to throughout being pregnant. My analysis group suspected this could be a major issue due to the excessive prevalence of low start weight in Nigeria and the truth that biomass gas is generally used.

Nigeria is among the many 5 international locations the place most preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants are born. About 5.9 million infants are born in Nigeria every year, and 15% of those newborns have a low start weight accounting for 25% of toddler mortality.

Our research explored the affiliation between biomass cooking gas and start weight amongst full time period births in Kaduna, northwestern Nigeria. We discovered there was a hyperlink—and this was supported by knowledge from the nationally consultant Demographic and Well being Survey. Moms in Kaduna who have been uncovered to biomass gas gave start to infants who have been on common 113g lighter than these utilizing liquefied petroleum fuel, which is a cleaner gas. Nationally, moms utilizing biomass had infants weighing 50g decrease at start than these utilizing clear gas.

Publicity to biomass gas combustion throughout being pregnant may adversely have an effect on fetal progress or improve preterm start threat, leading to a baby born early or small for gestational age and thus creating additional well being dangers for the kid.

Biomass gas consists of wooden, animal dung, charcoal and crop residues. It’s used worldwide for cooking, heating and lighting. Biomass fuels and kerosene are nonetheless extensively utilized in city and rural Nigeria resulting from provide and demand points driving family power decisions.

The research outcomes present the significance of efforts to make safer gas decisions obtainable.

Kaduna and nationwide Nigerian knowledge

Our research targeted solely on time period infants as a result of length of being pregnant independently impacts start weight, and a number of components affect preterm start.

We carried out the first evaluation primarily based on a research of 1,514 mother-child pairs in Kaduna, northwestern Nigeria. Kaduna is the fourth largest metropolis in Nigeria, with a inhabitants of 1.6 million.

To validate the first evaluation, we repeated it utilizing knowledge from 6,975 mother-child pairs in the newest Nigeria Demographic and Well being Survey 2018.

The first evaluation categorized cooking gas sorts as liquefied petroleum fuel, kerosene and biomass gas (together with charcoal, wooden, crops or straw, and animal dung). Within the survey, cooking fuels have been categorized into low air pollution gas (electrical energy, liquefied petroleum fuel and pure fuel), kerosene and biomass gas.

In each analyses, we noticed that the affect of biomass use on start weight was better than the affect of liquefied petroleum fuel or kerosene.

The outcomes spotlight the necessity for public well being intervention. Lowering antagonistic start outcomes like low start weight will rely upon addressing regional disparities in the important thing determinants.

Our outcomes confirmed that start order, family dimension, and socio-economic standing influenced cooking gas alternative, which is in line with present literature. It’s cheap that the ladies least ready to make use of clear cooking fuels can be those that:

  • reside in households of 5 or extra individuals
  • reside in poorer households
  • have given start at the least as soon as earlier than.

This could possibly be resulting from value and unreliable gas provide. Girls with extra youngsters or dwelling in bigger households may also prepare dinner with greater pots, requiring longer cooking instances, which will increase their publicity to indoor air air pollution from biomass gas use.


We suggest that pregnant girls attending antenatal care be requested about cooking fuels and given assist to reduce prenatal biomass publicity. Some current intervention trials carried out in low- and middle-income international locations, together with Nigeria, have proven that transition from biomass gas to cleaner fuels reduces air air pollution and improves outcomes like start weight.

Interventions to cut back indoor air air pollution may embrace a range subsidy, gas subsidy, gas ban and conduct change communication.

It is necessary first to know why a family makes use of a selected cooking gas.

It’s also very important to study from different family well being interventions, equivalent to sanitation and vitamin. These can improve an understanding of what bars or permits adoption of a brand new methodology.

Indoor air air pollution places girls of rural Bangladesh susceptible to pulmonary illnesses

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Nigerian newborns weigh much less if their moms use biomass gas, a significant well being threat (2022, October 7)
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