Surveillance in Viet Nam highlights hotspots for viral disease emergence and calls for action
Median-joining networks of (A) Betacoronavirus 1 (RdRp gene, [36], 393 bp), (B) porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (Pol gene, 546 bp), and (C) influenza A virus (PB1 gene, 384 bp). Circles correspond to distinct viral sequences and circle sizes are proportional to the variety of equivalent sequences within the dataset. Small black circles symbolize median vectors (ancestral or unsampled intermediate sequences). The numbers of mutational steps between sequences are represented as hatch marks alongside branches. Credit score: Viruses (2023). DOI: 10.3390/v15030790

A brand new research led by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) recognized a viral hotspot in Vietnam the place bat roosting websites, bat guano harvesting, and pig farms are all in shut proximity. The findings of this collaborative One Well being research, described within the newest subject of the journal Viruses, have necessary implications for public well being and wildlife conservation.

The authors say that the gathering of guano—generally used as a fertilizer—if not stopped solely, ought to embrace using private protecting tools for guano harvesters.

The analysis staff, which consisted of specialists from animal well being, public well being, and the atmosphere sector, collected over 1,600 animal and human samples from bat guano harvesting websites, pure bat roosts, and pig farming operations. They then examined for an array of viruses together with coronaviruses, influenza viruses, filoviruses and others.

They discovered important viral variety in bats, together with CoVs carefully associated to ancestors of pig pathogens, on the human–animal interfaces focused, in addition to localized viral transmission amongst pig farms. The zoonotic spillover potential of the bat viruses recognized on this research stay largely unknown, as these viruses haven’t been absolutely characterised and their skill to leap species obstacles has not been assessed.

Human samples have been additionally examined to detect antibodies towards eight virus teams. Restricted human sampling didn’t detect any recognized zoonotic bat viruses in human communities dwelling near a bat cave the place bat guano is harvested, however our different assessments confirmed potential earlier publicity to Marburg virus, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, and others.

As well as, the authors say the impression of bat guano harvesting on the conservation of bats and potential disruption of their important function within the broader ecosystem should be assessed. Bats act as pollinators and devour pathogen-carrying arthropods and agricultural pests and play a important function within the well being of individuals, animals, and ecosystems.

Mentioned co-author Hoang Bich Thuy, and WCS Vietnam Nation Program Director, “This research exhibits the dangers of bat guano assortment to the public well being, and the danger of viral spillover from wildlife into livestock and finally people. Surveillance and early detection of viral hotspots are keys to stopping the subsequent pandemic.”

This research represents one of many first makes an attempt to implement One Well being surveillance in Vietnam which is positioned inside a area characterised as a worldwide hotspot for rising infectious ailments.

One Well being is an built-in, unifying strategy that goals to sustainably stability and optimize the well being of individuals, animals and ecosystems. Key to the One Well being strategy is a recognition that the well being of individuals, livestock, wildlife, and the broader atmosphere are all interconnected.

The authors level out the necessity to combine wildlife experience into future One Well being surveillance planning and broaden data of wildlife programs (free vary populations of wildlife, wildlife farming operations, and wildlife commerce). Wildlife data will likely be important within the concentrating on of surveillance areas, interpretation of surveillance knowledge, and improvement of interventions wanted to forestall novel virus emergence in addition to put together for and reply successfully to the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential.

Extra info:
Alice Latinne et al, One Well being Surveillance Highlights Circulation of Viruses with Zoonotic Potential in Bats, Pigs, and People in Viet Nam, Viruses (2023). DOI: 10.3390/v15030790

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Surveillance in Vietnam highlights hotspots for viral illness emergence (2023, April 26)
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